Contemporary view of the villa formerly owned by Friedrich von Bernhardi / Photo by Marta Maćkowiak
Friedrich Adam Julius von Bernhardi
Friedrich’ s grandfather, Adam Johann Ritter von Krusenstern
Contemporary view of the house and photos of preserved historical interior details / Source: private archive
Friedric’s father-in-law, Wilhelm Günther von Colomb
Katharine also passed away first – on April 5, 1929, in her home at Warmbrunnerstrasse 104 (today ul. Tkacka 19), having lived for 75 years. Friedrich, at the age of 80, departed a year later – on July 10, leaving no descendants.
Death certificate of Katharine von Bernhardi (left) and Friedrich von Bernhardi (right) / Source: State Archives in Wrocław, Jelenia Góra branch
Thank you very much to the owners for sharing these beautiful interior photos.
Zur Eisenbahn Inn, source: Polska-org.pl
On the left side, the first page of Elsa Werner’s marriage certificate; on the right – the first page of the marriage certificate of Elsa Werner and Emil Deckwerth.
From the marriage certificate, we can find out that Elsa was the daughter of Hermann Julius Werner, a restaurateur from Szklarska Poręba, and Anna Maria née John. The old Werner was the owner of Werner’s Gasthaus, an inn located at the site of today’s Museum of the Jizera Mountains (Muzeum Ziemi “Juna”, ul. Jeleniogórska 9, Szklarska Poręba; the building burned down in 2015 and was reconstructed). Interestingly, the original building was over 300 years old and stood on the foundations of an old watchtower. It housed the so-called Hunger Tavern, associated with the period of great famine. During public projects like building a mountain road along the Kamienna River, workers could receive, among other things, a loaf of freshly baked on-site bread.
Werner’s Inn, source: Polska-org.pl
Emil Deckwerth’s death certificate
Returning to Piechowice and Elsa – her second husband, Emil Deckwerth, passed away on October 14, 1936, at the St. Hedwig Hospital in Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój (Bad Warmbrunn) at the age of 55. Elsa continued to run the Zur Eisenbahn Inn until at least 1939, as documentation from the W. Schimmelpfeng Information Office from that year has been preserved. It is unknown whether they had children or if Elsa survived the war.
Zur Eisenbahn Inn, source: Polska-org.pl
Today, the building serves a residential purpose. Does anyone know if there was a restaurant in the building again after the war? Let me know!
Contemporary view of the building that once housed the Zur Eisenbahn Inn / Photo by Marta Maćkowiak
Wiera Pupko, a photo from the beauty pageant competition in “Nasz Przegląd” (Our Review), 1929.
“Miss Wiera Pupko (No. 10) asks us to note that, for reasons beyond her control, she is forced to withdraw from the competition.”
Wiera, affectionately called “Wieruszka” by her relatives, was born in 1907 in Lida as the daughter of Isaac Pupko and Maria (née Trakiner). Shortly after her birth, the family moved to Vilnius, and after World War I, they relocated to Warsaw. According to the recollections of her cousin, Irene Newhouse Pupko, Wiera’s parents sent her to Belgium to study vocational counseling. They, on the other hand, became trapped in Warsaw, from where, in August 1941, Wiera received the last postcard written by her father.
From left to right: Wiera Pupko with an unknown person,
Maria Pupko, née Trakiner, Wiera’s mother,
Isaac Pupko, Wiera’s father,
photos from the family collection of Irene Newhouse, née Pupko.
The last card Wiera received from her father from the Warsaw Ghetto, from the family collection of Irene Newhouse, née Pupko.
When deportations of Jews from Belgium began, Wiera managed to escape to Cuba, where she worked as a diamond cutter.
But how is that possible? To Cuba? During the war and without specialized education? It turns out that during the war, Cuba admitted 6,000 Jewish diamond cutters and their relatives fleeing from Belgium, and Wiera was among them.
Passenger list from Havana to Miami, Wiera Pupko is the last one on the list.
On May 3, 1948, Wiera arrived in the United States, where she married Emil Turnheim and started a new life. According to Irene’s memories, Wiera was interested in the lives of her relatives but was reluctant to delve into her own past. To any inquiries about her pre-war life, she would reply, “It should be enough that I say so.” When Irene started taking notes, Wiera fell silent and waited for her to put down the pen. In the end, Irene and her mother found a way to persuade her by bribing her with her favorite cornbread muffins.
Wiera Turnheim Pupko passed away in New York in 1989.
Dąbrówka Children’s Home in Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój / Photo by Marta Maćkowiak
At the end of the 19th century, the brothers Georg and Artur Barasch purchased a building with a restaurant and an English garden located on a hill known as Weinberg (Wine Mountain), now at ul. Podgórzyńska 6. In 1879, the hill belonged to Beata Oertel. Her daughter, Paulina Fuchs, sold the land to Mr. Kums, who constructed the aforementioned building, opened a restaurant named Offaschänke, and established the English garden. Later, the entire property was to be leased to a waiter named Schmidt, and at the end of the 19th century, it was sold to the Barasch brothers, the owners of the Warenhaus Gebrüder Barash department store in Breslau (currently: the Feniks department store in Wrocław).
The Barasch brothers carried out extensive renovations and established a holiday home for their employees, naming it Baraschheim.
Georg and Artur were born into a Jewish family in Ścinawa (Steinau an der Oder). Their first joint and successful business venture was the sale of Baratol shoe polish in their hometown. Their success encouraged them to expand their activities, and in 1896, they opened a store in Wrocław (Breslau). In 1904, they built the Warenhaus Gebrüder Barash department store (currently still existing under the changed name, as Feniks department store), and before World War I, they already had a network of department stores throughout Germany.
Georg and Arthur Barasch/ source: Erholungsheim Barasch bei Warmbrunn im Riesengebirge. (Polona)
What was the stay at Baraschheim like?
The employees of Artur and Georg could use the resort free of charge from May to September, and the possible duration of their stay depended on the length of their employment – anything from 5 days to 4 weeks. Round-trip transportation and meals were also covered by the Barasch brothers.
Artur’s son, Werner Barasch, recalls: ‘Dad bought a sanatorium in the mountains, in Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój, where all the employees of the Barasch department store could enjoy all the amenities and free meals during their annual leave. It was an exceptional addition to their salary. Dad was proud that he could offer this to them.’
Interiors of Baraschheim / source: Erholungsheim Barasch bei Warmbrunn im Riesengebirge. (Polona)
Around 1920, the Barasch estate was purchased by Eugen Füllner, the owner of a paper machine factory in Cieplice (Bad Warmbrunn). In 1930, it was acquired by Friedrich Grössler, who renamed the holiday home to Eichenhof. In 1934, the building briefly became a sports school, and from 1935, it served as a military garrison. The complex was also called Das Deutsche Heim for some time.
After the Nazis came to power, Georg Barasch fled to Switzerland with his wife and son, later they moved to Ecuador. Artur died in Auschwitz on November 6, 1942, but fortunately, his wife and son managed to survive the war. In the following years, a Stolperstein (memorial stone) was placed in front of their villa, at Wissmannstrasse 11 in Berlin. Descendants of the Barasch brothers live in the United States and South America.
Between 1945 and 1961, the building served as a holiday home for the Polish Teachers’ Union. Presently, since 1961, the building functions as the Dąbrówka Children’s Home.
Out of love for Malinnik, once a village called Herischdorf, annexed to Bad-Warmbrunn (today’s Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój) before the war, I have created a special series dedicated to the beautiful villas in this area and their stories. I begin with the villa located at ul. Łabska 4, formerly Tannenberg 6 (and before World War I, Russische Kolonie), called Turm Villa and Vegetarierheim.
Postcard of the villa located at Tannenberg 6 (Russische Kolonie), today ul. Łabska 4 in Jelenia Góra (Hirschberg) / Source: polska-org.pl
Information about Elsa on the pre-war map of Cieplice
At Vegetarierheim, they exclusively served vegetarian meals and non-alcoholic beverages. Smoking was, of course, prohibited. It was a truly comprehensive cleansing treatment, especially for those times.
And the villa had a wonderful motto in its advertisement:
Today, the building is a multi-family home.
The houses in Malinnik are beautiful, each of them unique and majestic, each hiding a special story. Almost each one belonged to barons, generals, officials holding higher positions, and factory owners.
Photo of the villa at ul. Łabska 4 in Jelenia Góra (Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój) / photo by Marta Maćkowiak
Today is the anniversary of Rosel Aptekmann’s death, so her story will be the first in a series dedicated to people buried in the Jewish cemetery in Jelenia Góra (Hirschberg). Only a few tombstones with readable inscriptions have survived, just seven in total. Let’s learn about Rosel Aptekmann.
The gravestone of Rosel Aptekmann at the Jewish cemetery in Jelenia Góra / Photo: Marta Maćkowiak
On November 23, 1938, Leo Aptekmann came to the Civil Registry Office to report the death of his wife. Rosalie passed away on the same day at the age of 46 in the Martin Luther Evangelical Hospital in Jelenia Góra (formerly Hirschberg-Cunnersdorf). Presently, the building houses a Caritas care and medical facility (located at ul. Żeromskiego 2).
Two weeks after Kristallnacht. Perhaps this event had an impact on her health.
Rosalie Aptekmann’s death certificate / Source: Landesarchiv Berlin
Former Martin Luther Evangelical Hospital in Jelenia Góra, now Caritas care and medical facility at ul. Żeromskiego 2 / Source: Polska-org.pl
Leo and Rosalie lived at Hermann Göringstrasse 43 (formerly, before 1933, Warmbrunnerstrasse, now ul. Wolności), 600 meters from the hospital. According to available sources, it seems that the numbering of buildings has not changed.
The building on ul. Wolności (formerly Warmbrunnerstrasse/Hermann Göringstrasse) in Jelenia Góra / Source: Polska-org.pl
The building at ul. 43 Wolności 43 in Jelenia Góra today / Photo by Marta Maćkowiak.
The Aptekmanns were married for just under two decades, having tied the knot in Jelenia Góra on August 12, 1919.
Leo Aptekmann arrived in Jelenia Góra from Ukraine, specifically from the city of Smila, where he was born on February 25, 1892, as the son of Israel Aptekmann, a merchant, and Sophie née Brodski, residents of Kiev.
Rosalie, née Hirschstein, came into the world in Jelenia Góra on December 19, 1891, as the daughter of Julius Adolph Hirschstein, a merchant, and Rosalie née Moritz, who lived in Jelenia Góra in a house at plac Ratuszowy 4.
Leo and Rosalie initially resided at today’s ul. Wolności 32, in a house adorned with David’s stars on the veranda. Today, in addition to apartments, there is a shop and a Pentecostal church at that location.
Building at ul. Wolności 32 in Jelenia Góra / Photo: Marta Maćkowiak
Tenement at plac Ratuszowy 4 in Jelenia Góra, fragment from the exhibition at the Karkonosze Museum / Source: polska-org.pl
Marriage certificate of Julius Hirschstein and Rosalie Moritz in Mainz / Source: Mainz City Archive
It is unknown whether Leo and Rosalie Aptekmann had any descendants. So far, I haven’t come across any trace of them, and it is also unclear whether Leo remarried.
However, it is certain that after Rosalie’s death, her husband lived for some time at Jägerstrasse 6 (today ul. Wyczółkowskiego) until he was deported and killed at Majdanek concentration camp.
Building at ul.Wyczółkowskiego 6 in Jelenia Góra / Photo: Marta Maćkowiak
The Jewish community in Jelenia Góra (formerly Hirschberg) was quite modest, with a peak population of only 450 people. Nevertheless, the city had two Jewish cemeteries.
New Jewish Cemetery in Jelenia Góra on Sudecka Street / Photo by Marta Maćkowiak
The first, so-called “old” cemetery, was established between 1818 and 1820 in the vicinity of Nowowiejska, Na Skałkach, and Studencka streets. Today, there is no trace of this cemetery. No tombstones or cemetery architecture have been preserved, and a public square now stands in its place. After the resolution to close the cemetery was adopted by the City Council Presidium in Jelenia Góra in 1957, the liquidation process began in 1961.
Map of Jelenia Góra featuring the marked location of the old Jewish cemetery / Source: Fotopolska.eu
Photograph, likely depicting remnants of the old Jewish cemetery according to Fotopolska users, year 1928 / Source: Fotopolska.eu
Facing the street stood a beautiful mortuary building, which was set on fire during Kristallnacht in 1938. Surprisingly, the structure survived the war, and until 1972, it was inhabited by Leon and Maria Grzybek, the caretakers of the area. The Grzybek couple, quite fittingly named (Grzyb means ‘mushroom’ in Polish), tragically died due to mushroom poisoning. The cemetery was ultimately closed almost 100 years after its establishment, in 1974. The last burial in this building took place in 1959, and at that time, the Jewish community in Jelenia Góra consisted of 20 families.
Mortuary building at the Jewish cemetery in Jelenia Góra / Source: Okruchy z historii Żydów na Śląsku (Fragments from the history of Jews in Silesia), Warsaw 2014 via cmentarze-zydowskie.pl
Mortuary building at the Jewish cemetery on Sudecka Street in Jelenia Góra / Source: Polska-org.pl
Mortuary building at the Jewish cemetery in Jelenia Góra – building in the bottom right corner / Source: Polska-org.pl
Today, one part of the cemetery serves as a parking lot. Along the sidewalk, likely on the site of the mortuary, there is a boulder with a commemorative plaque, and further back, you can find several well-preserved tombstones.
Seven of them have been deciphered, and each will be the subject of a dedicated article: Rosel Aptekmann, Mathilde Buttermilch, Wilhelmine Danziger, Betty Ucko, Herman Cohn, Fritz Singer, and Leon Goldgraber, a representative of the post-war Polish community.
“The bitter death will not separate love” – inscription on one of the tombstones at the Jewish cemetery on Sudecka Street in Jelenia Góra.
Chrobry Recreation House – now a ruin, once the Preussischer Hof hotel. Located 711 meters above sea level, with excellent cuisine, situated directly by the forest. As it turns out, it also served as a meeting place for members of the local Masonic lodge.
Chrobry Recreation House in Karpacz (formerly Hotel Preussischer Hof in Krumhubbel) / Photo by Marta Maćkowiak
Chrobry Recreation House in Karpacz (formerly Hotel Preussischer Hof in Krumhubbel) / source: Polska-org.pl
Loge zur Schneekoppe, or Lodge beneath the Śnieżka. Preussischer Hof, known as Chrobry after the war, was the weekly meeting place for members of the Carpathian lodge, gathering every Monday at 8:15 pm.
The Lodge was founded on November 29, 1924, and by 1931, it had 21 members.
Fragment of the list of members of the Masonic Lodge in Karpacz
The building of the former confectionery and café owned by Hugo Reizig, today ul. Obrońców Pokoju 1 in Karpacz / Source: Polska-org.pl
The interior of the former confectionery and café owned by Hugo Reizig, today at ul. Obrońców Pokoju 1 in Karpacz / Source: Polska-org.pl
Death certificate of Margarete Eisner / Source: Landesarchiv Berlin
Death certificate of Max Eisner
During my August visit to the State Archives in Szczecin, I came across an interesting collection – a file of Masonic lodge members compiled by the Main Security Office of the Reich from 1939 to 1945. In this collection, I found the record of a woman a Jewish woman from Jelenia Góra (Hirschberg), Flora Sachs, who served as the chairwoman of the Sisters Association of the Victoria Lodge.
Card of Flora Sachs from the file of Masonic lodge members / Photo: Marta Maćkowiak, State Archives in Szczecin
The main headquarters of Victoria Loge was located in Goerlitz (specifically at Bismarckstrasse 13), and contrary to common belief, its activities did not revolve around esoteric knowledge. Instead, it primarily focused on educating about Judaism and promoting values such as tolerance, goodness, and humanity.
According to the aforementioned card, Flora lived precisely at Lichte Burgstrasse 21 in Hirschberg, which is now Jasna Street in Jelenia Góra.
Parents of Flora Sachs née Nathan – Adolf Nathan and Lina née Cohn / Photos courtesy of Mr. Stephen Anthony Giesswein
Birth certificate of Flora Sachs / Source: Bundesarchiv in Berlin
The no longer existing tenements on Lichte Burgstrasse (today’s Jasna Street) in Jelenia Góra / Source: Polska-org.pl
The Sachs family also ran a business here, specializing in tanning leather and trading leather goods, while Simon served as a member of the Jewish community board in Jelenia Góra.
Advertisement of Simon Sachs in the Arbeiter Zeitung, 1931
Cards of Flora and Simon from the Theresienstadt camp.
Statement of Flora’s death posted by her sister / Source: Yad VaShem
One page of the passenger list featuring Lothar and Hildegarde Sachs. They departed from Hamburg on June 29, 1938.
Statement of intent by Lothar Sachs, son of Flora and Simon, regarding becoming a U.S. citizen.
When visiting the state archives in search of specific documents, I like to order ‘random’ folders to see if similar records might come in handy in the future. It’s like a lottery – sometimes I browse through hundreds of boring listings and calculations, and at other times, I discover incredible stories. One of those incredible stories is undoubtedly the story of Anna Drescher.
Villa Birkenhain in Krummhübel (presently Brzozowy Sad in Karpacz), ulica Sadowa 2 / źródło: Polska-org.pl
This time, I took on a folder concerning Judenvermögensabgabe, which can be translated as the Jewish Property Tax. Judenvermögensabgabe was a tax introduced on November 12, 1938, and it applied to every German Jew whose property was valued at a minimum of 5,000 marks. This tax was also referred to as the ‘penance tax’ because, after the assassination of the German Embassy Secretary Ernst Eduard vom Rath on November 7, 1938, by Herschel Grynszpan, a Polish-German Jew, Hermann Göring demanded the payment of one billion German marks as ‘penance’ for the damage caused to the German nation by Jews.
While reviewing case after case, my attention was drawn to Anna Drescher, who, in 1938, was residing in Villa Birkenhein in Krummhübel – today’s Brzozowy Gaj guesthouse located in Karpacz at ul. Sadowa 2.
The first page of the folder: “The question of Mrs. Drescher’s Aryan origin has not yet been resolved” – so let’s see what this is about.
Page regarding Judenvermögensabgabe and Anna Drescher / Source: State Archive in Wrocław
Queen Luiza Mine in Zabrze, 1920s-1930s / Source: Polska-org.pl
Fragment of the birth certificate of Franz Drescher and Anna Toeplitz’s daughter, along with information about their religion / Source: Landesarchiv Berlin
So, Anna Toeplitz was born in Wrocław (Breslau) on April 14, 1879, and was the second of nine children of Dr. Theodor Max and Franziska Toeplitz.
Photographs of Franziska and Theodor Max Toeplitz / Source: Ancestry, Stefan Toeplitz
Marriage certificate of Theodor Max and Francizka Toeplitz, Kaliningrad (Königsberg) / Source: Records of the Evangelical Church in Königsberg
Excerpt from Heinrich Toeplitz’s death certificate / Source: State Archives in Wrocław
Tombstone of Heinrich Toeplitz at the Old Jewish Cemetery in Wrocław / Photo by Marta Maćkowiak
Returning to our heroine – Anna’s husband, Franz Drescher, passed away in Wrocław on January 20, 1934. Two years later, on October 12, 1936, Anna reported her mother’s death. She was living at Nova Strasse 4 (today’s Ksawery Liske Street) at that time.
At least since December 1938, Anna was residing in Karpacz. In the following years, Nazi officials must have uncovered her Jewish roots because on January 8, 1944, she was sent to the Theresienstadt camp. Fortunately, the story has a happy ending because in 1946, Anna registered with Sharit haPlatah – the Central Committee of Liberated Jews in Bavaria.
Transport document for Anna Drescher to the Theresienstadt camp (Terezin) / Source: International Tracing Service, Bad Arolsen
Końcowy raport składa się z kopi odnalezionych dokumentów, tłumaczeń, zdjęć oraz podsumowania. Wyjaśniam pokrewieństwo odnalezionych osób, opisuję sprawdzone źródła i kontekst historyczny. Najczęściej poszukiwania dzielone są na parę etapów i opisuję możliwości kontynuacji.
Czasem konkretny dokument może zostać nie odnaleziony z różnych przyczyn – migracji do innych wiosek/miast w dalszych pokoleniach, ochrzczenia w innej parafii, lukach w księgach, zniszczeń dokumentów w pożarach lub w czasie wojen. Cena końcowa w takiej sytuacji nie ulega zmienia, ponieważ wysiłek włożony w poszukiwania jest taki sam bez względu na rezultat.
Raporty mogą się od siebie mniej lub bardziej różnić w zależności od miejsca, z którego rodzina pochodziła (np. dokumenty z zaboru pruskiego, austriackiego i rosyjskiego różnią się od siebie formą i treścią).
Na podstawie zebranych informacji (Twoich i moich) przygotuję plan i wycenę – jeśli ją zaakceptujesz, po otrzymaniu zaliczki rozpoczynam pracę i informuję o przewidywanym czasie ukończenia usługi. Standardowe poszukiwania trwają około 1 miesiąca, a o wszelkich zmianach będę informować Cię na bieżąco.
Na Twoje zapytanie odpiszę w ciągu 3 dni roboczych i jest to etap bezpłatny. Być może zadam parę dodatkowych pytań, dopytam o cele albo od razu przedstawię propozycję kolejnych kroków.
Warto pamiętać, że im więcej szczegółów podasz, tym więcej rzeczy mogę odkryć.
Podziel się ze mną:
I najważniejsze – jeśli masz niewiele informacji, zupełnie się tym nie martw, w takich sytuacjach także znajdę rozwiązanie.